Anime #8

The first mention of the creation of pictures in Japan dates back to the XII century , when the Buddhist monk Toba (another name – Kakuyu) drew four comic stories about animals depicting people, and Buddhist monks who violated the charter. These stories – ” Tedzyugira ” – were four paper scrolls with drawings of ink and signatures to them. Now they are kept in the monastery where Toba lived. The techniques that he used in his works laid the foundations of the modern manga – as, for example, the image of human legs in a state of running.

Developing, the manga absorbed the traditions of ukiyo-e and Western techniques. After the Meiji restoration , when the Japanese iron curtain fell and Japan’s modernization began, Western comics began to be imported into the country, and the artists began to learn from their foreign colleagues the features of composition, proportions, color – things that were not given attention in ukiyo-e, because the meaning and idea of ​​the picture were considered more important than the form. In 1902, a comic comic called Tagosaki to Makube no Toukyou kenbutsu was published by Rakuten Kitazawa. This work, created in the likeness of American comic books, was the first in Japan to be a “serial” comic book. In the period from 1900 to 1940 , the manga did not play the role of a significant social phenomenon, it was rather one of the fashionable hobbies of young people. After coming to power of Emperor Taisho, mangaki began to experiment with foreign graphic styles, and also began to exchange experience with foreign artists. For example, in the 1920s a group of Japanese artists visited the United States, where at that time the industry of the comic books was on the rise. Manga in its modern form began to become during and especially after World War II. A great influence on the development of manga was provided by the European caricatureand American comics, which became famous in Japan in the second half of the XIX century.

At the time of Japanese militarism, the manga served propaganda purposes, was printed on good paper and in color. Its publication was financed by the state (unofficially it is called the “Tokyo manga”). After the war, when the country was in ruins, it was replaced by the so-called. “Osaka” manga, published on the cheapest paper and sold for a pittance . It was at this time, in 1947, that Osamu Tezuka released his manga Shin Takarajima ( Yap. 新 宝島 , “New Treasure Island”) , which was fantastic for a completely ruined country of 400,000 copies. This work Tezuka identified many of the stylistic components of the manga in its modern form. It was for the first time that sound effects, close-ups, graphic emphasis on motion in the frame were used – in short, all those graphic techniques, without which the current manga is unthinkable. “New Treasure Island” and later Astro Boy have become incredibly popular. During his life, Tezuka created many more works, acquired pupils and followers who developed his ideas, and made the manga a full (if not the main) direction of mass culture. The active entry of the manga to the world market took place in the early and mid-1990s. It was connected with the economic crisis, because of which Japan was seeking outlets to foreign markets.

Almost all of Japan’s population has been drawn into the manga world . It exists as part of the press . Circulations of popular works – One Piece and Naruto – are comparable to the printings of books about Harry Potter , but they are still falling. Among the reasons why the Japanese began to read less manga, the aging of society and the decline in the birth rate in Japan, as well as publishers, who in the 1980s and 1990s, trying to keep the old audience and orienting themselves to adult readers, were not interested in attracting young people. Now the children spend more time playing computer games than reading . In this regard, publishers are beginning to focus on exports to the US and Europe. Former Prime Minister Taro Aso , an admirer of manga and anime , believes that manga is one of the ways to bring the country out of the economic crisis and improve its image in the world arena. “Turning the popularity of the Japanese” soft power “into business, we can by 2020 create a colossal industry worth 20-30 trillion yen and give work to about 500 thousand more people,” Taro Aso said in April 2009.

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