Lubok (Splint)

Lubok (Splint)

Lubok (Splint) i.e. popular prints, popular prints, amicable leaves, simpler originally a form of folk art. It was Carried out in the technique’s of woodcutting , engraving on copper , lithography and WAS supplemented with hand-painted coloring .

Simplicity of technology, conciseness of graphic colors (are a rough bar, bright coloring) are characteristic of splints. The explanatory text contains a detailed description of the text (explanatory, complementary) images.

History

Will most ancient popular of The prints are known in China . Until the eighth century, they were drawn by hand. Starting from the 8th century, made in woodcut are known. In Europe, splint appeared in the XV century . Xylography technique is characteristic of early European lubok . Later added engraving to copper and lithography .

Of Due to ITS the clarity of and focus on the “Broad Masses” , popular prints Were Used as with the a Means of Agitation (for example, “volatile is Leaflets” DURING the Peasant War and the of the Reformation in Germany, popular prints from the time of the French Revolution ) .

In Germany, the factories for the production of images were located in Cologne , Munich , Neuruppin ; in France – in the city of Troyes . Books and pictures of obscene content are widespread in Europe, for example, “The Picture of Marital Love” ( fr. Tableau de l’amur conjual ). In Russia, “seductive and immoral pictures” were imported from France and Holland.

18th century is distinguished by its consistent composition.

Eastern splint ( China , India ) has a bright colorful.

At the end of the 19th century, splint was revived in the form of comics .

In Russia

In the XVI century, the prints were printed , prints were sold , “fryazhskie sheets” or “German sheet sheets” . In Russia, the drawings were printed on special sawing boards. The boards were called bast (from where the deck ). Drawings, drawings, Plans have Been Written on the bast since the 15Th century. In the XVII century painted bast boxes became widespread . Later, paper pictures were called splint, splint picture.

Fryazhsky mill was installed at the end of the 17th century. In 1680, the master Athanasius Zverev cutout for fryazhskie rubber ” .

German amusing sheets were sold in the Spassky Bridge.

Censorship and Prohibitions

In 1674, the Moscow the Patriarch by Joachim forbade “to the buy sheets, some Germans Were Be published the heretics, luthers and Calvin, in Their damned opinion You.” Of The the faces of the venerated of saints Were to the BE Written on the blackboard, and the printed images Were Intended for “prigozhista”.

Decry of March 20, 1721, prints (sheets), printed arbitrarily, except for the printing house. ” The Izugraf Chamber of Commerce was established in Moscow . Chamber Gave permission of The to print popular prints “arbitrarily, The except for the printing house.” Over time, the this Decree ceased to the BE Executed. A large number of low-quality images of Saints. Therefore, by a decree of October 18, 1744, it was ordered to “submit to the bishops prior to approval”.

The decree of January 21, 1723 is demanding ” Therefore, there are no images of the ruling persons.

In 1822 the police censorship was not included for printing popular prints . Some splints were banned, the boards were destroyed. In 1826, all prints (and not just popular prints) Were the Submitted to the censorship charter to review censorship.

Subjects of paintings

Initially, plots for everyday prints were handwritten, everyday life, “paternal writings”, oral legends, articles from translated newspapers (for example, “ Kuranty ”), etc.

Plots and drawings were borrowed from foreign Almanacs and Calendars. The Beginning of the At the of the XIX century, the plots are Borrowed from the novels and novels by Johann by Wolfgang von the Goethe , Anna Radcliffe , Sophie Cotten , Francois Rene de Chateaubriand is and OTHER writers.

It has been noted that it has been followed by the genre pictures, it has been the most common Eruslan Lazarevich “and OTHER tales, the faces of folk songs (” for They Drove the Boyars from Nova-Gorod “,” Bila Zhinka’s hubby “), women’s a heads with absurd Inscriptions, images of cities ( the Jerusalem is the navel of the earth ).

Types of splints

Spiritual and religious – in the Byzantine style. Images of icon type. Lives of saints, parables, morals, songs, etc.
Philosophical.
Legal – images of lawsuits and judicial actions. Often there were scenes: ” Shemyakin court ” and ” The Tale of Ersheich Ershovich .”
Historical – “Sweet stories” from the chronicles . Image of historical events, battles, cities. Topographic maps.
Fabulous – fairy tales magic, heroic, “Tale of Bold People”, everyday fairy tales.
Holidays – images of saints.
Cavalry – splint with the image of horsemen.
Balagur – funny splints, satires , caricatures , fairies.

Production of popular prints

Engravers were called “ fryazhski carved masters” (as opposed to Russian “ordinary” woodcarvers ). In the 16th century, it was supposedly Andronik Timofeev Nevezh.

The sign was drawing and coloring. Around the XVI (or XVII) century, the sign was divided into sign and engraving. An applied the flagman of The drawing Explosional drawing, the engraver -cut IT on a board, or metal.

Copy boards called translation. Boards are initially lime, then maple, pear and palm.

WAS splint made of The as with the FOLLOWS: the artist the put a pencil drawing Explosional drawing on a lime board (bast), the then, using the the this drawing Explosional drawing, made a Recess of places Those That Should REMAIN Communities white. The painted outlines of the picture on paper. Printed in paper. Prostoviki drove to a special artel . Of the XIX century the with In in the Moscow Region and Vladimir with In the Villages Were there special, Wheel discs Artels That Were Engaged in painting The popular prints. Engaged in painting splints women and children.Appeared, engraving artists appeared. It has been shown that it has been engraved on it. Painting the pictures the same. Artelschiki ordering for luben publishers. One person painted weekly for one day – one ruble was paid for such work. The profession was called tsvetschik. The profession disappeared after the lithographic machines.

One of the first Russian figures of the XVIII century. The factory belonged to the merchants Akhmetev. The factory employed 20 machines.

XIX century

In the middle of the 19th century, Moscow, Akhmetyeva, Loginov, Shchurov, Chizhov, Kudryakov, Rudnev, Florov, girls Lavrentieva, Sharapov, Kirilov, Morozov, Streltsov, Yakovlev.

The: second the half with In of the of the XIX century, ID Sytin WAS one’s of the-largest Producers and Distributors of print splints . In 1882, the the All-Russian Industrial and Art Exhibition Exhibitions took PLACE in Moscow , where clause Sytin products Were Awarded a silver medal.

ID Sytin collected for about 20 years The collection has been destroyed during the 1905 Revolution .

Synthesized chenes and annotations about 2 million copies of calendars, brittle scenes and 900 thousand pictures of secular content, Golyshev’s lithograph – about 300 thousand Prostovikov , There are about 4 million colors for each year. The highest price of popular prints was 25 kopecks.

Lubok in Russian playing cards of VM Sveshnikov

In 1981, the Combine of the Color Printing publishes a deck of playing cards Called “Playing cards, based on Russian popular prints, drawn by Viktor Sveshnikov.” The oldest artists of Leningrad , the graphic artist, Viktor Mikhailovich Sveshnikov (born 1907), Pupil I.Ya. Bilibin and the VM Konashevich , of He Makes a Significant Contribution to the graphic The art of playing cards. It has been made that it has been a masterly level.

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